Wednesday, October 30, 2019
On stem cell legislation and the related legal issues - Research Paper Example It helps in studying of degenerative diseases such as leukemia as well the development of drugs that can treat many complicated diseases currently without cure (Liras, 2010). This paper will explore stem cell research legislation in regards to its history, ethics, future and related legal issues. History of Stem Cell Research legislation in the United States The history of ESC research in US is closely associated with the abortion debate that has been around for over three decades. As early as 1973, the US Supreme Court legalized abortion in the case Roe v. Wade in its decision through the argument that abortion is a private matter between a doctor and a woman. However, the legalization of abortion also led to banning of federal funding on research touching on embryos or tissues. This ban did not affect the private sector which continued in the research and saw the rise of infertility research and other related technologies. Conducting research is quite an expensive affair and much o f the fruits of research being enjoyed currently in the world have taken the concerted efforts of both the private and public sectors. Therefore, much of the debate on ESC revolves around federal funding which can be very instrumental in achieving technological breakthroughs that seem untenable (Wertz, 2002). After the Roe v. Wade case ruling by the US Supreme Court that legalized abortion, the Congress imposed temporal moratorium on the funding of ESC research and allied technologies. This action by the Congress was taken so that regulatory bodies could be formed which in turn would come up with guidelines on the way forward. Prior to this ruling in 1974, there were no guidelines on which research to be supported with taxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ money from the federal government. Shortly after this case (1974), a commission was formed (National Commission NC) which would be involved in the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (PHSBBR). The first order of busines s for the NC was development of ethical guidelines on ESC research which extended the same for fetuses and abortion. In order to make lighten its work, the NC later recommended the formation of Ethics Advisory Board (EAB). The work of EAB in turn was to continually review protocols enacted by the NC with regards to ESC related research. When the guidelines were put in place, a de facto moratorium was arrived at which allowed simple non-therapeutic research on embryos to continue (Hall, 2008; Wertz, 2002). Research continued in non-therapeutic ESC research with federal funding although the private sector was doing its own research in ESC. Outlawing of federal funding for ESC research really hampered its progress while other developed countries were slowly getting ahead of US. The de facto moratorium developed by the Congress ensured that basic research was carried out which could not present a major breakthrough without attracting public outcry. Most of the findings and outcomes of t hese basic researches could not by any chance lead to the treatment of diseases which is one of the promising prospects of ESC research (Skene, 2010). Proceedings of the private ESC research came into limelight around 2001 when it was announced that human embryos had been cloned from adult cells. These embryos would then be used to derive stem cells matching
Monday, October 28, 2019
Solving The Problem How To Produce Economics Essay Introduction Economic is the study of how people satisfy their material needs and wants with the available resources. The primary focuses of economics are distinguished between needs wants, fundamental economic problems. Needs means something we have to have, ex foods, water, clothes. Wants are something we like to have. To produce these things society will face various problems. What to produce, how much to produce, how to produce, for whom to produce, when to produce. Basic economic problems are simply because wants are unlimited resources are limited. Resources can be mainly divided into two, natural economic. So we have to make choices to select wants needs. Its means unlimited wants limited resources force us to make choices. Evaluation of the total (life cycle) costs of alternative solutions to the problem of meeting the requirements of a particular client and choice of the best solution. ANSWERS Q1 Q1.1.Market Economy An economic system in which economic decisions and the pricing of goods and servicesÃ are guided solely by the aggregate interactions of a countrys citizens and businesses and there is little government intervention or central planning. This is the opposite of a centrally planned economy,Ã in whichÃ government decisionsÃ drive most aspects of a countrys economic activity.Ã The main co- coordinating device is the price decided in the market place through the interaction between demand and supply. Hence this also called free market system because the price is the main device that solves all basic economic problems. This is called price system. It is said that in a market economy, there is an invisible hand operating due to (a) economy is operated by the price system, (b) buyers and sellers respond to price system and accordingly both parties get coordinated, (c) basic economic problems are solved using the price system. In a market economy the basic economic problems are solved and resources are allocated in the following manner. Solving the problem what to produce in which quantity In a market economy this problem is addressed by the private sector entrepreneurs through the decisions made by them. Since they always have the profit motive the commodity and factor prices are considered in decision making. Consumers will create demand in the market by revealing their choice by purchasing goods. Suppliers create the supply force having considered the commodity price, cost and profit. Accordingly they will allocate more resources to produce more of goods with higher profits. Solving the problem how to produce This problem is concerned with the selection of production method by referring to the factor market. Since the private sector is concerned with profits they will select the most cost effective production method. Hence the factor with the lowest price will be applied more in the production in order to minimize the production cost. Solving the problem whom to produce This problem stresses how the economys total output gets distributed among people. This is decided by the distribution of income among people. Income distribution is determined by 2 factors which are (a) how much of factors are owned by the household units, (b) the price of such factors. In the market economies individuals can own resources without being subjected to any limitations. The resource ownership is decided by factors such as merits, skills, inheritance and entrepreneurship. Factor price is decided by the demand and supply of the factors. Therefore this problem is solved by the operation of the factor market. Command economy In command or planned economies, questions on resource allocation are decided by a central authority often the government or a state controlled council. However since centralized decisions require plans set in advance for the desired outcome, these economies are called centrally planned economies. In these economies, economic activities such as what to produce and how much to produce take place as per the commands of the central planners. E.g.: Cuba, North Korea In command economies the basic economic problems are solved and resource allocation is done based on a preset plan. This plan is a descriptive statement that illustrates resources, operation of production activities, and distribution of income among households etc. with a view of achieving a set of selected objectives. Solving the problem what to produce in which quantity It is the central planning authority that decides the resource allocation between consumer and investment goods. Solving the problem of how to produce It is the central planning authority that decides the production method and they set the plan to match inputs. Solving the problem for whom to produce This is concerned with the distribution of income among household units. The only factor that is owned by households is labour. The only means of income available to the household units is salaries and wages. A disparity in income distribution arises to a certain extent due to the differences in quality of labour. Further the quantity of goods and services the households get does not depend solely on their income because government also supplies goods and services at subsidized prices or free of charge. Q.1.2. (a) Market equilibrium price : Rs.51 (b) Market equilibrium quantity : 490 units Q.1.3. Effect of taxes The government imposes taxes on production or sale of commodities which are called indirect taxes. The indirect tax can be either a unit tax or an advoleram tax. If the government imposes an indirect tax on a commodity, it will shift the supply curve leftward by the amount of tax (i.e: if it is a unit tax, the supply curve will shift leftward by the amount of unit tax as supplier is supposed to pay the tax to the government). The effect of taxation will be that it increases the net cost of supplying a particular commodity. Therefore every quantity will be supplied at a higher price than earlier or in other words the quantity supplied at each price will be lesser than earlier. Figure 2 depicts the incidence of an indirect tax. Price S2 S1 C A C P2 B E P1 Qty D P0 0 Q2 Q1 Incidence of tax on the buyers Figure 2 Incidence of a tax on the sellers The division of the tax burden between the buyers and sellers depends on the elasticity of supply and demand. Given the demand conditions, the greater the elasticity of supply, and the greater the incidence of tax resting on the buyers of a commodity. On the other hand the greater the elasticity of demand, and greater the incidence of tax resting on the sellers of a commodity. Figure 2 represents the case of a commodity with relatively elastic supply. When the tax levied on this commodity, the supply curve shifts leftward from S1 to S2, the prices rise from P1 to P2 and the equilibrium quantity reduces from Q1 to Q2. P2 to P0 represents the unit tax. The price increase from P1 to P2 will be the incidence of tax on the buyers. P1 to P0 represents the burden of taxation (per unit) on the sellers. It should be noticed that in this case of elastic supply curve, the incidence of tax on the buyers is greater than that on the sellers. Imposing a tax on commodity typically increase the price paid by the demanders and decrease the price received by the suppliers. This certainly represents a cost to demanders and suppliers, but from the real cost of the tax is the output that has been reduced. The lost output is the social cost of tax. As per Figure 2, the concepts of consumer and producer surplus can be used to value the social cost of tax. The loss in consumers surplus is given by areas C+A and areas E+B represent the loss in producer surplus. Thus the total loss to the consumers and producers of the commodity is the areas C+A+E+B from which C+E is gained by the government as the tax revenue. The rest of the area A+B is known as the Dead Weight Loss of the tax or the excess burden of the tax. Basically, it is the lost value to the consumers and producers due to the reduction in sales of the commodity. Therefore the government does not get any revenue on the reduction in sales of the commodity. From the view point of society, it is a pure loss dead weight loss. Effect of Subsidies Subsidies on production will shift the supply curve to the right until the vertical distance between the two supply curves is equal to the per unit subsidy. When other factors remain constant, this will decrease the price paid by the consumers and increase the price received by the producers. A subsidy will reduce the net cost of supplying a commodity. Therefore every quantity will be supplied at a lower price than earlier or in other words the quantity supplied at each price will be higher than earlier. Figure 3 depicts the effect of subsidies. Figure 3 (b) FV= $100000 r = 12% n = 5 PV= ? PV = FV (1+r)-n = 100000(1+0.12)-5 = $56742.69 (c)FVA= Rs. 500000 n= 15 r= 7% PMT =? ] *Payment 500000= [(1+0.07)15-1)/ 0.07]* Payment Payment = Rs.19897.31 per annum Q2 Q2.1 Imagine that the monopolist produced one more unit than Qm. The consumer surplus from that unit would be the difference between the demand curve and the price for that unit. Now imagine that the monopolist produced all of the additional units it would take to make the efficient quantity. The area of the blue triangle represents the additional surplus that consumers would get if the market were efficient. In other words, the area of the triangle is the loss in consumer surplus that results from the monopolists under-production. It is the true dead weight loss to the society. Therefore it is evident that monopoly is not good from the view point of the society as a whole. A monopoly will be appropriate in a situation where there is a limited supply of a particular commodity which can be considered as a necessity good where it is required to be offered to the public at a reasonable price. In such situations the government will establish a monopoly. This will ensure that the particular product or service meets the required standards. E.g. Railway in Sri Lanka Q.2.3. (a) Labour per day Output per day Marginal Product Variable cost Average Cost Marginal Cost 0 0 0 0 1 5 5 50 10 10 2 12 7 100 8.33 7.14 3 20 8 150 7.5 6.25 4 31 11 200 6.45 4.54 5 40 9 250 6.25 5.56 6 46 6 300 6.52 8.33 7 50 4 350 7 12.5 8 52 2 400 7.69 25 (b) (c ) Q.3.1 Summarizing There are various types of economic systems practiced in the world. Such as Market economy, centrally planed (Controlled) economy, Mixed economy. Each system has various types of advantages disadvantages. Demand supply both determine the price of a good. Demand means willingness capacity to pay. Supply is the quantity of goods that businesses willing to produce or sell. In demand supply analysis the concept of equilibrium plays a major role. This is a concept which opposing dynamic forces cancel each other out. When it comes to theory of the firm economic cost can be divided as, explicit, implicit, fixed variable costs. Explicit costs are the monitory payments it makes to those who supply labor services, material, fuel, transport service etc. Firms implicit costs are the opportunity costs of using its employed resources. Fixed costs are not related directly to production rents, rates etc. they can change but not related to output. Variable costs that do change when we produce more more. There are 4 major types of market structures available. Each market consists of different features. The market means any organization where buyers, sellers, particular good are kept enclosed with each other.
Friday, October 25, 2019
A Midsummer Night's Dream is, in a way, Romeo and Juliet turned inside out--a tragedy turned farcical. The tragedy both are based on is the story of "Pyramus and Thisbe." In one, Ovid's story is treated as a melodrama (in Romeo and Juliet) and in another, it is fodder for comedy (in A Midsummer Night's Dream). The tale of "Pyramus and Thisbe" is simply told in Book IV of Metamorphoses. The title characters are in love with one another, but they cannot be together because they are separated by a wall. More importantly though, they are separated by their parents who forbid the relationship to progress. The two lovers will not be denied and so plan to meet in secret one night. However, each arrives at the arranged rendezvous point at different times, and this complicates things. Pyramus arrives after Thisbe, but she is hidden from sight at that moment, and he believes she has been eaten by a lion because he finds a bloody scarf of hers, so he kills himself. When Thisbe comes out of hiding, she finds her beloved dead and, too, commits suicide. All this is certainly very sad and pathetic. So what better story to base a melodramatic play on? Shakespeare does just that in Romeo and Juliet. He uses Pyramus and Thisbe, borrowing their plight of being separated by parents, their clandestine relationship, and their suicides. Through this, he satisfies the qualities of melodrama. Romeo and Juliet wrings a good cry out of audience members probably every time it is performed. That is because it is easy to identify with the "star-crossed lovers" and the fact they are kept from what they want most. Empathy plays a major role, as much as any of the characters. It almost makes the audience part of the play. The spectator is part of the action in essence, rooting for the good guys, for "us," and not "them," the bad guys. However, the protagonists do not win in the end. This is yet another melodramatic quality found in both "Pyramus and Thisbe" and in Romeo and Juliet. It seems that they should, and will, be together in the end and be allowed to love each other freely, but that is not the way it turns out. Instead, the young lovers are dead by play's end because of pride and hate. The entire audience watching this spectacle is left feeling the same way and asks, "But why couldn't they just be together?
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The Mexican-American War was the beginning of a legacy of hate between the Americans and Mexicans. During this era, America was growing commercially and industrially, leading to the need for more land to maximize the American profit. This Anglo-American necessity led to the Mexican-American War. Imperialism was indeed the corner stone for the entire Mexican-American war; Americans aimed to control the Mexican lands through direct control. Manifest Destiny, the belief that the Americans were to expand to the Pacific Coast, was started in the 1840s. It is no secret that Polk won the election largely because of his radical expansionist views. Shortly after PolkÃ¢â¬â¢s win, he sent a few representatives to protect the border of Texas and bargain for the land, not long after Congress passed Texas to become a state. Due to the men Ã¢â¬Å"protectingÃ¢â¬ the border of Texas, Mexico became angry and refused to accept PolkÃ¢â¬â¢s compromise, offering only a partial recognition. Polk declined, and American troops proceeded to the Rio Grande. Polk later claimed that the Mexico-American War was a last resort to MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of cooperation and attack on the Americans, and that Ã¢â¬Å"American blood had been shed on American soil.Ã¢â¬ This is inaccurate. At that time, the land was neither said to belong solely to the Americans, or solely to the Mexicans. Each side thought the land belonged to them. Polk had also already planned the steps to lead to the control of Texas, even before the war. If not for imperialist goals, why would Polk have already planned the steps leading up to the war, if war itself was a Ã¢â¬Å"last resort?Ã¢â¬ This shows the Americans illustration of imperialism by the fact that President Polk would not accept MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s terms for partial recognition probably because Polk had a dream of owning all the land to the coast. In fact, during this time the Anglo-Saxons believe that the God they worshiped had given them a right to all the land on this continent, and that they were to spread their religion within those who did not believe. Abiel Abbot Livermore gave an accurate description of the Americans in his book The War With Mexico Reviewed: Ã¢â¬Å"more, more, give us more.Ã¢â¬ This is in regards to the AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ want for new land. Numerous people had negative views on the Mexican-American War. Benjamin Lundy, William Ellery Channing, and John Quincy Adams were just a few. Eugene Barker stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the general cause of the revolt was to extendÃ imperial authorityÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ as well as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦substitute centralized oligarchy.Ã¢â¬ Common imperialist views are that the people should exert their culture on the lands that they gain control of. Eugene BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s statement leads one to believe that this was exactly what President Polk was doing. In this case, it was religion that he and the Americans were enforcing. He forced the Mexicans to become Protestant if they chose to stay in their homeland. The Mexican American War shows all the signs of imperialism. President Polk made claims that there was no other solution but war, when, in reality, there were many other solutions. PolkÃ¢â¬â¢s unnecessary want for the control of land, and for the United States to become the greatest power, all familiar views of imperialism, led him to war. The annexation of Texas did indeed play a large role in the Mexican-American War, and was based off of imperialist beliefs and goals.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
My parents and I had been looking forward to our trip for seeks and everything Just seemed precisely planned and made us all excited as the days got closer. That to me was what it meant when you had a family trip, to me It was a time where you get excited to be together and work on building this bond that you all have and just enjoy each other's company. You start counting days down and get hyped up wanting adjust be at that one place where you know a new level of family love can be found.You realize that in this place is where any problems can be forgotten even If Just for a temporary time and that you can find new adventure amongst the simplest spot with the most beloved people in your life. However sometimes moments can change and become ones that will affect you for possibly the rest of your life, this is unknowingly what was in store for my family and l. Hernandez 2 Wanting to stay with my Aunt and uncle who live in Arizona, my parents and I went for New Years expecting a fun fa mily time.Unexpectedly my father's grandmother ended up passing away so amongst our trip he decided to stay back for her funeral. Arguing back and forth about what to do occurred with the end result being that my father would stay behind to later come up to Arizona and take us back home at the end of the stay. Unfortunately as time went on through the week my parents continuously fought over the phone to the point where my father told my mother he no longer wanted to be with her. This shocked me as I wanted my parents to be together forever, I did not want them to end and I definitely did not want my family to split up.My mother certainly did not want that so she got my father to be calm enough to agree that when he came down to Arizona they should in person actually talk things through. The day had later finally come where my father was now with us and my mother wanted to have a thorough conversation with him. Being only 13 at the time I was still young and thought well they can wo rk it out I know they can, they always work their problems out, so there is no way they will break up. However I was so wrong, hearing the words that my father spoke to my mother truly broke my heart.Saying he no longer loved her and he couldn't be with her honestly shook me to my core, I Just could not believe that right before my eyes I was seeing my parent's 1 OFF and that I knew he loved my mother. Being young I could not have imagined the real reason behind his words that ended up feeling like a knife in our family back. Believing my father's words I simply believed that he had fallen out of love with my mother. I did not like it but no matter how much I tried to change my father's mind he would not budge. Therefore, I saw that I had no say in the matter at all that really what I wanted did not nor Hernandez 3 would it ever matter.In having no choice in the matter I felt heart broken, my family was simply slipping through my fingers. Being only 13, still so young I would have n ever imagined that behind my father's words were lies and the fact that he had cheated on my mother. Honestly he became someone different to me at this moment, e was like a stranger, definitely not the father I once was close with. Within finding out this information I lost all respect for my father and faith that relationships last, even in the belief that families can really always remain together.Saying that my trust in people had changed was an understatement, I had went from trusting my father was a great guy to not being able to believe a word he said. In seeing how easily my father could hurt my mother and Just leave his family made me think if he could do that then why wouldn't someone else I love do that. I began to think that all people especially men were liars and cheaters. I felt that I wouldn't be able to trust again and I wouldn't be able to fall in love or have a family of my own.My thoughts were that two people making promises to love one another for the rest of the ir lives was Just nothing but a lie. My ability to trust had been completely broken, but within this I also felt abandoned by the one man who had said he would always be there. My father had lied and in thinking he was Just leaving my mother had left me too, so I believed that was what all men were capable of. I felt that if I gave anyone the lightest ounce of my trust that I would Just get hurt again and being heartbroken was not a feeling I wanted to go through yet again in my life.An apology was never even heard through any of it by my father so I Just assumed he didn't care at all. It wasn't until going to a therapist and actually talking my feelings out happened that I heard an apology. In hearing that years later at the age of 17 was when I began to realize that no matter what I wish would have happened or wished I could have changed, it Hernandez 4 would never be different. My parents would never be together again and my father loud never undo the hurt he had caused and the a nger I had felt towards him.No matter how much I wanted my father to be the same guy I had always looked up to he wouldn't because I had lost my respect for him and my trust in him. Losing my trust in him was one of the hardest things to deal with, but I knew I still loved my father and over time I wanted to be able to have a relationship with him again. In realizing this I saw that I had to move forward in my life and forget the past in order to work at rebuilding my trust not Just within my father but in people in general. That I had to let go of my hurt and anger towards my father in order to have the chance at that new relationship.In simply wanting this I knew that looking to the future was the only option no matter how much my past had changed me, therefore the past had to remain in the past. I had to mature and be happy moving on and enjoying my life, There you have it a family trip turned into a moment that split a family a part and caused trust issues along with so much hur t and anger. It went from being about relaxation to uncovering lies and deceit in someone who was so beloved to me. Having my trust broken and questioning relationships made me believe I would never be happy.Over time however, I was able to realize that the past had to stay in the past, that I had to only look forward to the future. I knew I wanted to be happy and regain my sense of trust, so slowly piece by piece that has been able to begin to be rebuilt. I still do have issues that I know will take more time to fix, but at least now all I really look forward to is having a bright, happy future. One where hopefully my relationship with my father can change and be Just as good as it used to be before the New Year's trip we had went wrong.